Compensatory abilities include reading and writing skills, strategies, and tools that students can use to access the general education curriculum, including braille, large print, and tactile graphics, audio, objects, images, or symbols. Speaking and listening, study and organization skills, concept development, and spatial understanding also fall under the compensatory skill category.

MDE-LIO does not endorse the purchase or use of any non-State Board of Education-adopted commercial products. Products and services noted below are included for information only and their inclusion should not be interpreted as a recommendation of MDE-LIO.

Unified English Braille (UEB) Implementation

Unified English Braille
The Braille Authority of North America (BANA) offers materials and resources regarding UEB.

UEB Codebook [PDF]
These are the rules of the UEB, published by the International Council on English Braille.

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics

The Nemeth Code
This resource from BANA provides guidance for transcription using the Nemeth code within UEB, chemistry notation, and other resources.

Nemeth Tutorial
The Nemeth Tutorial from American Printing House for the Blind (APH) teaches students and teachers how to use the Nemeth code from introductory topics to advanced topics in mathematics.

Online Learning: Nemeth Braille Code Courses
This series of courses from Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired is designed to provide easy access to support learning or reinforcing Nemeth braille code skills for families, teachers, and paraeducators working with students who are braille readers.

Federal Guidance on Law

"Dear Colleague" letter from OSEP [PDF]
The U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) wrote a letter to public agencies in June 2013 to clarify requirements in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) regarding braille instruction for students who are Blind or Visually Impaired.



Paths to Literacy
This website is a collaboration between Perkins and the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired. The website offers many literacy strategies for students who are blind.

American Foundation for the Blind
The American Foundation for the Blind has resources for teachers and parents. The website also connects you to places that provide braille texts.
WonderBaby scans the Internet for valuable resources and links to them on their website, including a section devoted to braille and literacy.


Tactile Literacy Tools
This resource can be used to learn about and locate APH products that support the development of skills and concepts that help develop tactile literacy.

Math Symbol Reference Booklets - Large Print
This APH kit is a resource for students and teachers who are using Nemeth and UEB math.

Math Drill Cards: Addition Cards (Nemeth)
These flashcards help reinforce math skills in students who read braille or large print.


MDE-LIO loans books to teacher consultants and other school personnel for professional development. You may borrow a book for two months. If you are interested, please visit the BVI Resource Library.

Beginning with Braille
This book provides effective activities for promoting literacy at the early stages of braille instruction.

Braille Literacy: A Functional Approach
by Diane P. Wormsley, Ph.D.

This book provides innovative options for teaching braille to those who have trouble learning through traditional methods.

Instructional Strategies for Braille Literacy
by Frances Mary D'Andrea, Ph.D., Diane P. Wormsley, Ph.D.

This user-friendly handbook provides creative strategies for teaching braille to children with congenital or adventitious visual impairments, students with additional disabilities, and students who speak English as a second language.

Foundations of Braille Literacy
by Evelyn J. Rex, Alan J. Koenig, Ed.D., Diane P. Wormsley, Ph.D., and Robert L. Baker

The first and only text to address the teaching of braille reading and writing in the context of literacy in general, the whole language approach, and the way in which print reading and writing are taught.

I-M-Able: Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education
by Diane Wormsley

The I-M-Able approach is an individualized, student-centered method for helping children learn braille.

Research and Articles

Braille Authority of North America (BANA) Position Statement
The BANA explains its position that braille should not be considered its own language. The BANA does not endorse awarding language credits to students for learning braille.

If Braille Were Print
This article aims to dispel common attitudes and misconceptions about braille.