Students learn skills for orientation and mobility (O&M) to become aware of their surroundings and move around independently.

MDE-LIO O&M Resources

O&M Goal Bank and Assessment [PDF]
This document provides appropriate O&M goals for use in a student’s individualized education program (IEP). It also includes tables for tracking progress on each goal.

Conducting Essential Assessments During COVID-19 [PDF]
This tool provides information on conducting essential assessments for students who are Blind/Visually Impaired during the COVID-19 pandemic, including O&M assessments.

O&M Severity Rating Scales

Orientation and Mobility SRS [PDF]
The severity rating scale supports consistency in determining service delivery times for students who are Blind or Visually Impaired. Use the scale to establish how often a particular service should be delivered to a student.

Orientation and Mobility SRS+ [PDF]
Use the SRS+ when services are delivered to students with additional needs.

O&M Resources

MDE-LIO does not endorse the purchase or use of any non-State Board of Education-adopted commercial products. Products and services noted below are included for information only and their inclusion should not be interpreted as a recommendation of MDE-LIO.

Assessment and Instructional Tools

TAPS – An Orientation & Mobility Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairments, 3rd Edition
This section of the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI) website provides an O&M curriculum for students with a visual impairment.

TSBVI Orientation and Mobility: Preschool Style
This section of the TSBVI website provides O&M activities for preschool students with a visual impairment.

TSBVI Inventory of Purposeful Movement Behaviors
This document provides a checklist of expected skills and abilities of children from birth to six years old. The document can be used to track the child’s abilities. To access the document, contact TSBVI at [email protected].

New Mexico School for the Blind & Visually Impaired (NMSBVI) O&M Inventory
The NMSBVI’s O&M Inventory allows O&M specialists to quantify and track student progress within specific areas.

O&M Assessment: Early Years of Birth Through Three Years [PDF]
This document provides a checklist of expected skills and abilities of children from birth to three years old. The document can be used to track the child's abilities.

Professional Development

The Academy for Certification of Vision Rehabilitation and Education (ACVREP)
The ACVREP provides certifications that ensure quality O&M specialists work with students with a visual impairment. This web page includes directions for becoming a Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialist (COMS).

The MDE OSE requires ACVREP certification for all Michigan O&M specialists. The OSE issued a memo about ACVREP certification on January 13, 2016.

Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER) Orientation and Mobility Division (Division 9)
The Orientation and Mobility Division (Division 9) of AER promotes professional standards and improvement of O&M practices and services. Division 9 offers professional development opportunities, encourages quality university preparation of O&M specialists, and works to improve and expand O&M services for individuals with a visual impairment.

Chris Tabb: LiveBinder Resources for O&M Specialists
Chris Tabb, an O&M Consultant for the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, offers several O&M resources and tools on LiveBinder.

Web Resources

Perkins Scout Overview of Orientation and Mobility
Scout compiles online resources on all aspects of visual impairments and blindness and is maintained by the Perkins School for the Blind. Scout’s Overview for O&M provides links to general information about O&M. The web page also has specific categories that feature more web resources.

TSBVI Orientation and Mobility Instructional Resources
This section of the TSBVI website compiles a list of resources for O&M, including various instructional resources.

Perkins School for the Blind O&M Pinterest Page
Perkins maintains an O&M Pinterest page with a variety of ideas and resources for helping individuals with a visual impairment.

CVI: Orientation and Mobility
This section of the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) website is dedicated to resources for cortical visual impairment (CVI). The O&M web page includes instructional resources for teaching students with CVI.

Orientation and Mobility for Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired
This FamilyConnect resource provides general information about O&M instruction and links to resources for families about supporting O&M instruction at various age levels.

Orientation and Mobility Activities for Families of Children who are Blind or Visually Impaired
This FamilyConnect resource includes a list of fun O&M activities that parents and families can do with their children to reinforce O&M skills.

Parent Mobility
This site includes O&M resources for families, including videos that educate parents and families about travel techniques.

The Blind Life YouTube Channel
This YouTube channel includes a variety of videos and podcasts about being Blind/Visually Impaired. Sam, who created The Blind Life, has been Visually Impaired since childhood. He shares tips and tricks for navigating life with low vision.

Paths to Technology: Orientation and Mobility Posts
Paths to Technology offers a wide range of O&M articles and activities that are particularly useful for O&M specialists.

Orientation and Mobility Strategies
Paths to Literacy for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired offers strategies and literacy activities that support O&M instruction or have an O&M component.

Games That Enhance the O&M Experience for Children
The Professional Development and Research Institute on Blindness offers games designed to enhance students’ O&M skills. Instructions are provided for creating and playing the games.

Early Childhood

Perkins – Orientation and Mobility for Babies
The O&M web page on explains the importance of O&M with infants and toddlers, and provides different activities to use.

Blind Children’s Center Publications
The Blind Children’s Center offers books and videos that teach parents various interventions for children with a visual impairment.

Screening Tools

Individual Sensory Learning Profile [PDF]
O&M specialists can use this document as a guide for screening infants.

FIT Vision Screening Tool – Early Childhood Programs
The NMSBVI’s Family Infant Toddler Program provides a vision screening tool that O&M specialists can use as a guide for screening children from birth to age three.