Individuals who are blind use braille to read and write. Other paths to literacy can also supplement braille.
MDE-LIO does not endorse the purchase or use of any non-State Board of Education-adopted commercial products. Products and services noted below are included for information only and their inclusion should not be interpreted as a recommendation of MDE-LIO.
Unified English Braille (UEB) Implementation
UEB Codebook [PDF]
These are the rules of the UEB, published by the International Council on English Braille.
Braille Authority of North America (BANA) Tips and Resources for Unified English Braille (UEB)
The BANA provides guidance on how to begin the process of changing to UEB using different assistive technology.
Federal Guidance on Law
- "Dear Colleague" letter from OSEP [PDF]
The U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) wrote a letter to public agencies in June 2013 to clarify requirements in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) regarding braille instruction for students who are blind or visually impaired.
Tips to Promote Literacy
We are currently in the process of updating a few documents below. For immediate assistance, please contact MDE-LIO.
Building Braille Reading Speed: Some Helpful Suggestions [PDF]
This article offers advice on how to teach and learn braille based on personal success.
Oral Reading Fluency Presentation
This document talks about the role of oral reading fluency in a literacy program, including for students who are blind or visually impaired.
Literacy Success for Students with Visual Impairments
This document is from an MDE-LIO workshop. The packet highlights many important questions and factors to consider for teaching literacy to students who are blind.
Resources for Parents—General Tips
This document helps parents learn how to help their child learn to read.
Paths to Literacy
This website is a collaboration between Perkins and the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired. The website offers many literacy strategies for students who are blind.
American Foundation for the Blind
The American Foundation for the Blind has resources for teachers and parents. The website also connects you to places that provide braille texts.
WonderBaby scans the Internet for valuable resources and links to them on their website, including a section devoted to braille and literacy.
Sources of Adapted Materials to Promote Literacy Development [PDF]
This document lists different products that can be used to help promote literacy development.
Resources for Learning and Refreshing Literary Braille Skills [PDF]
This document lists valuable resources for braille.
MDE-LIO loans books to teacher consultants and other school personnel for professional development. You may borrow a book for two months. If you are interested in one of the books, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org to request a book.
- Beginning with Braille
by Anna Swensen
This book provides effective activities for promoting literacy at the early stages of braille instruction.
- Braille Literacy: A Functional Approach
by Diane P. Wormsley, Ph.D.
This book provides innovative options for teaching braille to those who have trouble learning through traditional methods.
- Instructional Strategies for Braille Literacy
by Frances Mary D'Andrea, Ph.D., Diane P. Wormsley, Ph.D.
This user-friendly handbook provides creative strategies for teaching braille to children with congenital or adventitious visual impairments, students with additional disabilities, and students who speak English as a second language.
- Foundations of Braille Literacy
by Evelyn J. Rex, Alan J. Koenig, Ed.D., Diane P. Wormsley, Ph.D., and Robert L. Baker
The first and only text to address the teaching of braille reading and writing in the context of literacy in general, the whole language approach, and the way in which print reading and writing are taught.
Research and Articles
Braille Authority of North America (BANA) Position Statement
The BANA explains its position that braille should not be considered its own language. The BANA does not endorse awarding language credits to students for learning braille.